April 22-26, St. Petersburg, Russia,Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry44 Toreza Ave
INFORMATION LETTER. OPTOGENETICS+ 2020
Honours of Dygalo NN:
Elected as a Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences of the Department of Physiology – 2011.
Winner of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences’ Award in Fundamental Biology.
Member of the editorial boards of the journals «Stress – the International Journal on the Biology of Stress», «Uspekhi Fiziologicheskikh Nauk [Successes of Physiological Sciences]», «Vavilov journal of genetics and breeding» and «Integrative Physiology».
Announcement of the lecture «Study of neuronal mechanisms of psychoemotional behavior using optogenetic and chemogenetic approaches»:
Manifestations of anxiety and depression with the modulation of rat brain neurons activity were investigated by opto- and chemogenetics methods. The optostimulation of glutamatergic neurons (GN) of the hippocampus enhanced the depressive-like state of animals directly during stimulation periods. The chemogenetic lowering of the activity threshold of these neurons did not affect the expression of the stress-induced depressive state but increased the latent period of its manifestation. The chemogenetic activation of the prefrontal cortex GN reduced animal anxiety, but not depressive behavior. However, chemogenetic decrease of the cortex GN activity increased depressive manifestations. Thus, the behavioral consequences of changes in cortex and hippocampal GN activity depend on the method of their modulation: in optogenetic stimulation – due to rapid change of ion current through the cell membrane, and in chemogenetic modulation – due to change of the threshold of neuronal activity. These features of the methods should be taken into account in their application in experimental studies and possibly in the future for practical purposes.
Announcement of the lecture «The role of NMDA receptors in cerebellar neurodegeneration caused by chronic photostimulation of ChR2 in Bergmann glia»:
The aim of the work was to create a model of selective cerebellar astrogliosis (using nonspecific (chronic photoactivation of Bergmann glia, expressing ChR2) and specific (expression of mutant Ataxin 1) cerebellar astrocyte stimuli), to study the effect of astroglia on transsynaptic transmission of Purkinje cells in the early stages of disease, and estimate the effect of memantine to this process.
Reactive astroglia changes at an early stage of the pathological process lead to a disturbance of morphology and reduce the number of neurons in the cerebellar cortex. Memantine significantly improves the morphology of astrocytes and positively affects the dendritic tree of Purkinje cells without affecting their total number. We found similar pathomorphological changes and the positive effect of oral administration of memantine in an astrogliosis model with selective expression of mutant Ataxin 1 in Bergmann glia.
Honours of Salmina AB:
Laureate of the Medal and Award of the Russian Academy of Sciences for young researchers,
Recipient of the State Government Award on Science and Technology for young researchers,
Head of the Leading Scientific School of the Russian Federation (on Medicine),
Recipient of the Scopus Award Russia,
Liaison Professor of the Niigata University (Japan),
Collaborative Professor of the Kanazawa University (Japan).
Announcement of the lecture «Optogenetic approaches to control astroglial activity in brain neurovascular unit»:
Topic issues on the application of optogenetic protocols to astrocytes activation and controlling intercellular communications within the neurovascular unit/blood-brain barrier will be discussed. The report will be focused on experimental data on current opportunities to manage astrocyte-mediated mechanisms required for maintaning the blood-brain barrier structural and functional integrity, activity of cerebral endothelial cells, and neurogenic potential of stem and progenitors cells within the brain neurogenic niches.
Announcement of the lecture «Microbial rhodopsins in optogenetics: problems and perspectives»:
Microbial rhodopsins are retinal-containing proteins that perform light-dependent ion transport, sensory and other functions. A large number of their variants have been found in nature or constructed using protein engineering based on information about the spatial structure of the proteins belonging to this family. Cationic and anionic channelrhodopsins are widely used in molecular biology and biomedical research as a universal tool for light-induced regulation of various cellular processes. In particular, the technology of ontogenetic restoration of vision due to the expression of channelrhodopsins in retinal cells is proposed. In order to effectively implement the possibilities of optogenetic approaches, it is necessary to further improve both the functional properties of rhodopsin molecules (increasing sensitivity, optimizing kinetics, etc.) and the mechanisms of their targeted expression in particular cells or cell compartments.
Announcement of the lecture «Optogenetic tools for experiments with behaving animals»:
At this time optogenetics has found many applications in different fields of neuroscience. Moreover, large arrays of optogenetic technologies, which enable fast and precise control over neurons within behaving mammals, have greatly progressed as well. The report will focus on optogenetic tools to investigate neural circuits in freely moving animals. The methods of targeting opsins to the cell population of interest, strategies of photostimulating cells in awake, behaving animals and integration of optogenetic control with readouts (behavioral, electrophysiological et al.) will be reviewed in the report.
The report will also provide results of application of optical interface developed in our lab which allows bilateral optical access to any brain structure in freely moving rats.
Honours of Bregestovski PD:
One of the most cited scientists in France – 2001
A.V. Palladin’s medal (Ukraine) – 2008
A.D. Speranski’s medal (Russia) – 2012
Honorary Professor of Kazan State Medical University – 2016
Announcement of the lecture «Photochromic modulation of Сys-loop receptors»:
Photopharmacology is a direction based on the creation of chemical compounds capable of controlling the functions of biological molecules possessing photosensitive switches. This approach is based on the ability of certain molecules (azobenzenes, spiropiranes, diarylethenes) to change their conformation upon illumination with the light of specific wavelength. Photochromic compounds that activate or inhibit the activity of key cellular proteins, especially ion channels, represent a powerful tools for non-invasive control of neuronal network activity and, consequently, functional control of organisms and their behaviour. Photoswitchable regulators have been designed and characterized for a large number of ligand-gated receptors in the mammalian nervous system. We have developed several new azobenzene-based light-controlled compounds capable to modulate function of inhibitory GABA and glycine Cys-loop receptors. The other photochromic compounds, which offer new opportunities to study and modulate neurotransmission mediated by Cys-loop receptors will be also described.
Retinitis pigmentosa and other severe degenerative diseases of the retina most often lead to complete blindness and, unfortunately, are not amenable to treatment. There is a strategy for prosthetics of a degenerating retina using optogenetic approaches in which photosensitive proteins are introduced into either bipolar or ganglion cells. This operation provides bipolar cells or ganglion cells the property of photosensitivity, and turns them into pseudo-photoreceptors.
Over the past decade, mouse models with a degenerated retina have shown the principal opportunity of such prosthetics. In these animals, the expression of photosensitive proteins in degenerated neurons of the retina led to the appearance of photosensitivity and even the ability to orientate in space. At the same time, a circle of problems has yet to be resolved – low sensitivity to light of prosthetic cells, low selectivity and effectiveness of viral constructs, different specificity of viral constructs to a healthy and degenerated retina, and others.
– Has a Ph.D. in Neuroscience in Saint-Petersburg State University, Russia.
– Worked in the Brain Science Institute of RIKEN, and the Human Brain Research Center, Kyoto. Functional brain mapping, neural circuits and different types of brain optical imaging are his main scientific interests as well as professional background.
– Was working in few US universities, last years – in the University of Maryland (UMB). His current focus is on functional brain mapping, epileptic studies neural network and traumatic brain injury and regeneration.
– Author and co-author of more than 40 publications in peer-reviewed magazines, and few book chapters.
– A senior editor of the Journal of Neuroscience and Neuroengineering, member of the board of directors of Society for Brain Mapping and Therapeutics (SBMT), and member of editorial board of a few scientific journals.
Currently, optical recording of neural activity using genetically-encoded fluorescent calcium probes is widespread. Such an approach allows capturing the activity of large populations of neurons in non-narcotized animals when they perform various behavioral tasks. Traditionally, multiphoton microscopy is used for such recording, which, for all its advantages, has one significant drawback – the high cost of equipment, which greatly limits the possibility of using this approach. Recently, a much more affordable alternative to the confocal microscope has appeared, which also allows optical recording of neuronal activity in free behaving animals – these are miniature recording microscopes – miniscopes. One of the features of the miniscope is the possibility to assemble it from separately purchased components, which makes this method of recording of neuronal activity affordable to many laboratories.
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