Microbial rhodopsins are retinal-containing proteins that perform light-dependent ion transport, sensory and other functions. A large number of their variants have been found in nature or constructed using protein engineering based on information about the spatial structure of the proteins belonging to this family. Cationic and anionic channelrhodopsins are widely used in molecular biology and biomedical research as a universal tool for light-induced regulation of various cellular processes. In particular, the technology of ontogenetic restoration of vision due to the expression of channelrhodopsins in retinal cells is proposed. In order to effectively implement the possibilities of optogenetic approaches, it is necessary to further improve both the functional properties of rhodopsin molecules (increasing sensitivity, optimizing kinetics, etc.) and the mechanisms of their targeted expression in particular cells or cell compartments.
Петровская Л. Е.